SYSTAT(1) BSD Reference Manual SYSTAT(1)
systat - display system statistics on a CRT
systat [-n] [-w wait] [display] [refresh-interval]
systat displays various system statistics in a screen oriented fashion using the curses screen display library, curses(3). While systat is running the screen is usually divided into two windows (an exception is the vmstat display which uses the entire screen). The upper window depicts the current system load average. The information displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user commands. The last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error messages. By default systat displays the processes getting the largest percentage of the processor in the lower window. Other displays show swap space usage, disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(8)), virtual memory statistics (a la vmstat(8)), network "mbuf" utilization, and network connections (a la netstat(1)). Input is interpreted at two different levels. A "global" command inter- preter processes all keyboard input. If this command interpreter fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to a per-display command interpreter. This allows each display to have certain display-specific commands. The options are as follows: -n Do not try to reverse-map IP address. -w wait Specifies the screen refresh time interval in seconds. This option is overridden by refresh-interval, if given. The default interval is 5 seconds. display The display argument expects to be one of: pigs, iostat, swap, mbufs, vmstat, ifstat or netstat. These displays can also be requested interactively and are described in full detail below. refresh-interval The refresh-interval specifies the screen refresh time interval in seconds. This is provided for backwards compatibility, and overrides the wait interval speci- fied with the -w flag. The default interval is 5 seconds. Certain characters cause immediate action by systat. These are ^L Refresh the screen. ^G Print the name of the current "display" being shown in the lower window and the refresh interval. ^Z Suspend systat. : Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input line typed as a command. While entering a command the current character erase, word erase, and line kill characters may be used. The following commands are interpreted by the "global" command inter- preter. help Print the names of the available displays on the command line. load Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes on the command line. stop Stop refreshing the screen. [start] [number] Start (continue) refreshing the screen. If a second, numeric, argument is provided it is interpreted as a refresh interval (in seconds). Supplying only a number will set the refresh interval to this value. quit Exit systat. (This may be abbreviated to q.) The available displays are: pigs Display, in the lower window, those processes resident in main memory and getting the largest portion of the processor (the default display). When less than 100% of the processor is scheduled to user processes, the remaining time is ac- counted to the "idle" process. iostat Display, in the lower window, statistics about processor use and disk throughput. Statistics on processor use appear as bar graphs of the amount of time executing in user mode ("user"), in user mode running low priority processes ("nice"), in system mode ("system"), and idle ("idle"). Statistics on disk throughput show, for each drive, kilobytes of data transferred, number of disk transactions performed, and time spent in disk accesses (in milliseconds). This in- formation may be displayed as bar graphs or as rows of numbers which scroll downward. Bar graphs are shown by de- fault. The following commands are specific to the iostat display; the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied. numbers Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form. Values are displayed in numeric columns which scroll downward. bars Show the disk I/O statistics in bar graph form (default). secs Toggle the display of time in disk activity (the default is to not display time). split Toggle the display of separate read/write statis- tics (the default is combined statistics). swap Show information about swap space usage on all the swap areas compiled into the kernel. The first column is the device name of the partition. The next column is the total space avail- able in the partition. The Used column indicates the total blocks used so far; the graph shows the percentage of space in use on each partition. If there is more than one swap par- tition in use, a total line is also shown. Areas known to the kernel but not in use are shown as not available. mbufs Display, in the lower window, the number of mbufs allocated for particular uses, i.e., data, socket structures, etc. vmstat Take over the entire display and show a (rather crowded) com- pendium of statistics related to virtual memory usage, pro- cess scheduling, device interrupts, system name translation caching, disk I/O etc. The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the number of users logged in and the load average over the last 1, 5, and 15 minute intervals. Below this line are statistics on memory utilization. The first row of the table reports memory usage only among active processes, that is, processes that have run in the previous twenty seconds. The second row reports on memory usage of all processes. The first column reports on the number of physical pages claimed by processes. The second column reports the same figure for virtual pages, that is, the number of pages that would be needed if all processes had all of their pages. Finally, the last column shows the number of physical pages on the free list. Below the memory display is a list of the average number of processes (over the last refresh interval) that are runnable ('r'), in disk wait other than paging ('d'), sleeping ('s'), and swapped out but desiring to run ('w'). Below the queue length listing is a numerical listing and a bar graph showing the amount of system (shown as '='), user (shown as '>'), nice (shown as '-'), and idle time (shown as ' '). To the right of the Proc display are statistics about Context switches ("Csw"), Traps ("Trp"), Syscalls ("Sys"), Interrupts ("Int"), Soft interrupts ("Sof"), and Faults ("Flt") which have occurred during the last refresh interval. Below the CPU Usage graph are statistics on name transla- tions. It lists the number of names translated in the previ- ous interval, the number and percentage of the translations that were handled by the system wide name translation cache, and the number and percentage of the translations that were handled by the per process name translation cache. At the bottom left is the disk usage display. It reports the number of seeks, transfers, number of kilobyte blocks transferred per second averaged over the refresh period of the display (by default, five seconds), and the time spent in disk accesses. Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant are statis- tics on paging and swapping activity. The first two columns report the average number of pages brought in and out per second over the last refresh interval due to page faults and the paging daemon. The third and fourth columns report the average number of pages brought in and out per second over the last refresh interval due to swap requests initiated by the scheduler. The first row of the display shows the average number of disk transfers per second over the last refresh in- terval. The second row of the display shows the average number of pages transferred per second over the last refresh interval. Running down the right hand side of the display is a break- down of the interrupts being handled by the system. At the top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the time interval. The rest of the column breaks down the total on a device by device basis. Only devices that have inter- rupted at least once since boot time are shown. Below the SWAPPING display and slightly to the left of the Interrupts display is a list of virtual memory statistics. The abbreviations are: forks process forks fkppw forks where parent waits fksvm forks where vmspace is shared pwait fault had to wait on a page relck fault relock called rlkok fault relock is successful noram faults out of ram ndcpy number of times fault clears "need copy" fltcp number of times fault promotes with copy zfod fault promotes with zerofill cow number of times fault anon cow fmin min number of free pages ftarg target number of free pages itarg target number of inactive pages wired wired pages pdfre pages daemon freed since boot pdscn pages daemon scanned since boot The '%zfod' value is more interesting when observed over a long period, such as from boot time (see the boot option below). ifstat Display, in the lower window, interface statistics. See below for more options. netstat Display, in the lower window, network connections. By de- fault, network servers awaiting requests are not displayed. Each address is displayed in the format "host.port", with each shown symbolically, when possible. It is possible to have addresses displayed numerically, limit the display to a set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambigu- ous prefix may be supplied): all Toggle the displaying of server processes awaiting requests (this is the equivalent of the -a flag to netstat(1)). numbers Display network addresses numerically. names Display network addresses symbolically. protocol Display only network connections using the in- dicated protocol (currently either "tcp" or "udp"). ignore [items] Do not display information about connections associated with the specified hosts or ports. Hosts and ports may be specified by name ("vangogh", "ftp"), or numerically. Host ad- dresses use the Internet dot notation ("188.8.131.52"). Multiple items may be specified with a single command by separating them with spaces. display [items] Display information about the connections asso- ciated with the specified hosts or ports. As for ignore, items may be names or numbers. show [ports|hosts] Show, on the command line, the currently selected protocols, hosts, and ports. Hosts and ports which are being ignored are prefixed with a '!'. If ports or hosts is supplied as an ar- gument to show, then only the requested infor- mation will be displayed. reset Reset the port, host, and protocol matching mechanisms to the default (any protocol, port, or host). The following commands are specific to the vmstat and ifstat displays; the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied. boot Display cumulative statistics since the system was booted. run Display statistics as a running total from the point this command is given. time Display statistics averaged over the refresh interval (the de- fault). zero Reset running statistics to zero. Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to the minimum unambiguous prefix; for example, "io" for "iostat". Certain information may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient for display. For example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar graph displays only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal. When a bar graph would overflow the allot- ted screen space it is truncated and the actual value is printed "over top" of the bar. The following commands are common to each display which shows information about disk drives. These commands are used to select a set of drives to report on, should your system have more drives configured than can nor- mally be displayed on the screen. ignore [drives] Do not display information about the drives indi- cated. Multiple drives may be specified, separat- ed by spaces. display [drives] Display information about the drives indicated. Multiple drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
/etc/hosts host names /etc/networks network names /etc/services port names
kill(1), ps(1), top(1), renice(8)
The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.
Takes 2-10 percent of the CPU. Certain displays presume a minimum of 80 characters per line. The vmstat display looks out of place because it is (it was added in as a separate display rather than created as a new pro- gram). MirOS BSD #10-current December 30, 1993 4
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